CareFirst Specialty Pharmacy
Tofacitinib is currently being studied for use in Vitiligo. One of the central pathways of vitiligo that seems to be important to the disease progression is the interferon-gamma signaling pathway. Involved in this pathway are the JAK receptors. Because of this, the use of a JAK receptor can be used to block the pathway and therefore block the progression of the disease and help induce repigmentation.
Oxytocin is a naturally occurring peptide hormone in the human body that is produced by the hypothalamus. This hormone plays a role in human social bonding, sexual reproduction, and childbirth. Currently, a synthetic form of oxytocin is used as a medication to help induce labor in patients who are medically indicated and to help control postpartum bleeding. It is available as a solution for intramuscular (IM) and intravenous (IV ) injection.
Midrin is a combination product of acetaminophen 325 mg, isometheptene mucate 65 mg, and dichloralphenazone 100 mg. This medication starts working against headache pain in as little as 5 to 10 minutes.
Midrin is a combination product of acetaminophen 325 mg, isometheptene mucate 65 mg, and dichloralphenazone 100 mg. It is used for the treatment of migraine and tension headaches and works by targeting the headache pain via three different pathways. The acetaminophen component helps to reduce pain by inhibiting central prostaglandin synthesis, specifically COX-2, to help elevate the patient’s pain threshold. The isometheptene mucate component reduces stimuli leading to vascular headaches by causing vasoconstriction of dilated cranial and cerebral arterioles. The dichloralphenazone component is a prodrug of chloral hydrate and antipyrine which are a sedative and relaxant respectfully and aid in reducing the patient's emotional response during a migraine episode.
Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestering agent that was approved by the FDA for use in hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol). By forming a complex with bile acids that cannot be absorbed by the body, cholestyramine prevents recycling of bile acid through the process of enterohepatic recirculation. Due to this, the bile acids lost in the fecal matter need to be replaced. Since bile acids are created from cholesterol, this causes the overall cholesterol level to decrease.
Tofacitinib is classified as an anti-rheumatic agent that is normally prescribed for autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and psoriatic arthritis. It functions through inhibition of the JAK-STAT pathway which is made up of several pro-inflammatory paths and results in increased inflammation. There have been four different JAKs discovered at this point (JAK1/2/3 and TYK2) and variations in their function can be associated with increased or decreased total immune system function.
Boric acid is a weak local anti-infective that is often used topically to for its anti-septic and anti-fungal effects. It is used topically for conditions involving irritated skin, such as chapped or chafed skin.
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), also known as male pattern baldness, is the most common cause of hair loss in men, affecting about 80% of Caucasian males. It is characterized by hair follicles that gradually decrease in size, leading to baldness over time. AGA is usually the result of a genetic predisposition; however, evidence shows that the cause may also be androgen-related. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is the primary androgen involved in AGA and men affected by this condition will have increased serum concentrations of DHT.
Flucytosine is an oral antifungal agent that is used with amphotericin B for serious Candida and Cryptococcus infections. It works by penetrating fungal cells and interfering with fungal RNA and protein synthesis. However, it is generally used second-line and its use is limited by its toxicities. Flucytosine should be used with extreme caution in patients with kidney dysfunction and dose adjustments are required. It should also be used with caution in patients with bone marrow depression, hematologic disease, or who have been treated with radiation or drugs that suppress the bone marrow.
Alopecia commonly referred to as hair loss is a condition that affects the majority of the population. It is more prevalent in males; about 30% of men experience hair loss by the age of 30, 50% by the age of 50 and increases 80% by the age of 70. It is less prevalent in females and about 40-50% of women experience hair loss by the age of 70.