Glutathione (GSH) is a molecule that is made by the body and consists of the amino acids: glycine, glutamate, and cysteine that all help to support the immune system. GSH is an antioxidant which means that it helps prevent cell damage by detoxifying harmful substances in the body. As we age, the levels of naturally occurring GSH drops, however, in certain disease states the levels drop occurs quicker than normal. Therefore, oftentimes supplementation is sought after in those disease states.
Almost 50% of Americans visit their physician due to pain, however, almost 4 out of 10 people with pain do not get adequate pain relief and do not respond well to their prescribed pain regimen. Mainly, there are two types of pain that DXM has been used to treat: opioid resistance and neuropathic pain. Opioid resistance is when there is no response to pain relief when high IV doses of morphine sulfate are used. This opioid resistance occurs in conditions such as cancer, chronic pain, and postherpetic neuralgia. Neuropathic pain usually occurs when there is an injury to the nerves such as diabetic neuropathy.
CPP is defined as pain in the region of the pelvis for more than 6 months. It involves parts of the body that are supplied by the nervous system and the pain is most often located between the belly-button and hip/thigh area.
Guanfacine can also be used as an adjunct treatment in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). ASD is defined as a biologically based neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Children with ASD are reported to demonstrate hyperactivity as well, both with or without the presence of an ADHD diagnosis.
Tofacitinib is currently being studied for use in Vitiligo. One of the central pathways of vitiligo that seems to be important to the disease progression is the interferon-gamma signaling pathway. Involved in this pathway are the JAK receptors. Because of this, the use of a JAK receptor can be used to block the pathway and therefore block the progression of the disease and help induce repigmentation.
Oxytocin is a naturally occurring peptide hormone in the human body that is produced by the hypothalamus. This hormone plays a role in human social bonding, sexual reproduction, and childbirth. Currently, a synthetic form of oxytocin is used as a medication to help induce labor in patients who are medically indicated and to help control postpartum bleeding. It is available as a solution for intramuscular (IM) and intravenous (IV ) injection.
Midrin is a combination product of acetaminophen 325 mg, isometheptene mucate 65 mg, and dichloralphenazone 100 mg. This medication starts working against headache pain in as little as 5 to 10 minutes.
Midrin is a combination product of acetaminophen 325 mg, isometheptene mucate 65 mg, and dichloralphenazone 100 mg. It is used for the treatment of migraine and tension headaches and works by targeting the headache pain via three different pathways. The acetaminophen component helps to reduce pain by inhibiting central prostaglandin synthesis, specifically COX-2, to help elevate the patient’s pain threshold. The isometheptene mucate component reduces stimuli leading to vascular headaches by causing vasoconstriction of dilated cranial and cerebral arterioles. The dichloralphenazone component is a prodrug of chloral hydrate and antipyrine which are a sedative and relaxant respectfully and aid in reducing the patient's emotional response during a migraine episode.
Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestering agent that was approved by the FDA for use in hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol). By forming a complex with bile acids that cannot be absorbed by the body, cholestyramine prevents recycling of bile acid through the process of enterohepatic recirculation. Due to this, the bile acids lost in the fecal matter need to be replaced. Since bile acids are created from cholesterol, this causes the overall cholesterol level to decrease.
Tofacitinib is classified as an anti-rheumatic agent that is normally prescribed for autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and psoriatic arthritis. It functions through inhibition of the JAK-STAT pathway which is made up of several pro-inflammatory paths and results in increased inflammation. There have been four different JAKs discovered at this point (JAK1/2/3 and TYK2) and variations in their function can be associated with increased or decreased total immune system function.