The ability of active pharmaceutical ingredients with the same chemical formulation to exist in more than one crystalline form with different structural arrangements. Mebendazole exists in the solid state as three different polymorphic forms identified as A, B, and C.
Ursodiol (ur-soe-dye-ole) is a medication that you may recognize under two different names: Ursodeoxycholic acid or Actigall ® . This medication is used to help remove or prevent gallstones containing cholesterol in not only humans but also in dogs or cats as well! This medication may also be used to treat liver or gallbladder disease in pets.
Radiation burns are not actually burns! They are a type of dermatitis or skin irritation caused by high levels of radiation exposure on the skin. Radiation exposure can originate from various sources including prolonged UV light exposure, high levels of X-ray exposure from medical imaging procedures, and radiation therapy used in cancer treatment.
Bimatoprost is a prostaglandin F2-α agent which is currently FDA indicated for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure and hypotrichosis of the eyelashes. The success of bimatoprost in treating hypotrichosis of the eyelashes, which is when there is an inadequate amount of eyelashes, has led to investigating its use in other types of hair loss.
Despite drastic containment measures, Coronavirus Disease known as COVID-19, characterized as a pulmonary infection in humans, continues to spread. The United States now leads the world in confirmed cases with more than 81,321 people sick including more than 1,000 deaths, surpassing China’s reported total. There is no vaccine or cure for COVID-19 at the time, however, many therapies are being investigated to mediate the virus. Currently, the possible effects of hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19 are being investigated.
As women age, testosterone levels decrease, along with other hormones such as estrogen. This is because around the time that menopause begins, the ovaries are producing fewer hormones. Furthermore, a woman may have reduced levels if her ovaries have been removed or if she has adrenal insufficiency.
The LDN Research Trust is a UK registered Charity, founded in 2004, with the primary purpose of promoting research into the unlicensed use of Naltrexone at a low dose, to treat conditions and diseases. Naltrexone at a low dose is referred to as LDN (Low-Dose Naltrexone).
Naltrexone is often classified as an opiate antagonist. However, at low-doses, Naltrexone acts to inhibit certain inflammatory pathways, which involve Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs). Naltrexone’s traditional use is in treating addiction to opiate drugs, such as heroin or morphine, or to treat acute overdose of these opioids. The daily dose of Naltrexone used for this purpose is usually between 50 mg (moderate dose naltrexone) to 300mg (high dose Naltrexone). Similar levels of Naltrexone are using for acute dosing.
For patients with chronic Lyme disease, intravenous antibiotics can be used to eliminate persistent disease. The intravenous course can eliminate Lyme disease in the body, but the symptoms may take longer to subside. It's unknown why symptoms, like joint pain, continue after the bacteria have been treated. Some doctors believe that persistent symptoms occur in people who are prone to autoimmune disease.
Glutathione (GSH) is a molecule that is made by the body and consists of the amino acids: glycine, glutamate, and cysteine that all help to support the immune system. GSH is an antioxidant which means that it helps prevent cell damage by detoxifying harmful substances in the body. As we age, the levels of naturally occurring GSH drops, however, in certain disease states the levels drop occurs quicker than normal. Therefore, oftentimes supplementation is sought after in those disease states.
Almost 50% of Americans visit their physician due to pain, however, almost 4 out of 10 people with pain do not get adequate pain relief and do not respond well to their prescribed pain regimen. Mainly, there are two types of pain that DXM has been used to treat: opioid resistance and neuropathic pain. Opioid resistance is when there is no response to pain relief when high IV doses of morphine sulfate are used. This opioid resistance occurs in conditions such as cancer, chronic pain, and postherpetic neuralgia. Neuropathic pain usually occurs when there is an injury to the nerves such as diabetic neuropathy.
Guanfacine can also be used as an adjunct treatment in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). ASD is defined as a biologically based neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Children with ASD are reported to demonstrate hyperactivity as well, both with or without the presence of an ADHD diagnosis.
Tofacitinib is currently being studied for use in Vitiligo. One of the central pathways of vitiligo that seems to be important to the disease progression is the interferon-gamma signaling pathway. Involved in this pathway are the JAK receptors. Because of this, the use of a JAK receptor can be used to block the pathway and therefore block the progression of the disease and help induce repigmentation.
Oxytocin is a naturally occurring peptide hormone in the human body that is produced by the hypothalamus. This hormone plays a role in human social bonding, sexual reproduction, and childbirth. Currently, a synthetic form of oxytocin is used as a medication to help induce labor in patients who are medically indicated and to help control postpartum bleeding. It is available as a solution for intramuscular (IM) and intravenous (IV ) injection.
Midrin is a combination product of acetaminophen 325 mg, isometheptene mucate 65 mg, and dichloralphenazone 100 mg. It is used for the treatment of migraine and tension headaches and works by targeting the headache pain via three different pathways. The acetaminophen component helps to reduce pain by inhibiting central prostaglandin synthesis, specifically COX-2, to help elevate the patient’s pain threshold. The isometheptene mucate component reduces stimuli leading to vascular headaches by causing vasoconstriction of dilated cranial and cerebral arterioles. The dichloralphenazone component is a prodrug of chloral hydrate and antipyrine which are a sedative and relaxant respectfully and aid in reducing the patient's emotional response during a migraine episode.
Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestering agent that was approved by the FDA for use in hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol). By forming a complex with bile acids that cannot be absorbed by the body, cholestyramine prevents recycling of bile acid through the process of enterohepatic recirculation. Due to this, the bile acids lost in the fecal matter need to be replaced. Since bile acids are created from cholesterol, this causes the overall cholesterol level to decrease.
Tofacitinib is classified as an anti-rheumatic agent that is normally prescribed for autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and psoriatic arthritis. It functions through inhibition of the JAK-STAT pathway which is made up of several pro-inflammatory paths and results in increased inflammation. There have been four different JAKs discovered at this point (JAK1/2/3 and TYK2) and variations in their function can be associated with increased or decreased total immune system function.
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), also known as male pattern baldness, is the most common cause of hair loss in men, affecting about 80% of Caucasian males. It is characterized by hair follicles that gradually decrease in size, leading to baldness over time. AGA is usually the result of a genetic predisposition; however, evidence shows that the cause may also be androgen-related. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is the primary androgen involved in AGA and men affected by this condition will have increased serum concentrations of DHT.
Flucytosine is an oral antifungal agent that is used with amphotericin B for serious Candida and Cryptococcus infections. It works by penetrating fungal cells and interfering with fungal RNA and protein synthesis. However, it is generally used second-line and its use is limited by its toxicities. Flucytosine should be used with extreme caution in patients with kidney dysfunction and dose adjustments are required. It should also be used with caution in patients with bone marrow depression, hematologic disease, or who have been treated with radiation or drugs that suppress the bone marrow.
Alopecia commonly referred to as hair loss is a condition that affects the majority of the population. It is more prevalent in males; about 30% of men experience hair loss by the age of 30, 50% by the age of 50 and increases 80% by the age of 70. It is less prevalent in females and about 40-50% of women experience hair loss by the age of 70.
Estrogens are a group of hormones produced primarily by the ovaries in women. They can also be produced by the adrenal gland and fat tissue in smaller quantities. It is considered a female hormone, but the testes in men also produce it in very small quantities and contribute to the development of male reproductive organs. It is referred to as a sex hormone as it mainly targets and is produced by the reproductive organs.
Compounded medications are made for each individual or pet who provides a prescription from a physician, veterinarian or other medical professionals. These special medications are formulated for a particular patient rather than for any patient who requires the prescription drug. You might wonder why compounded medications can help you to live a healthier life, and here are six reasons for ordering these prescription drugs from a compounding pharmacy.
It is important to follow the directions provided by the health care provider on how to take the drug to ensure you receive maximum clinical benefit. Compounding of certain medications allows them to be administered in alternate route(s) that are not offered commercially. A compounding pharmacist can work with your doctor to see what options are available.
Like humans, pets can suffer from hormonal changes and disorders as they age. These can cause them to act strangely and change in appearance. One of the most common of these disorders is Cushing's disease. While rare in humans (1-2 cases/million people per year), Cushing's is quite common in pets, particularly in dogs, occurring in 1-2 out of every 1000 dogs per year.
Treatment for cognitive disorders is a growing field in the world of medicine. As we learn more about how the brain works, new drugs are made to manage the effects of the various diseases and disorders of the brain. One of these new drugs is Synapsin®, a dietary supplement made by pharmacist Jim LaValle to promote neurologic and cognitive health.
Anal fissures are a common anorectal condition, occurring in roughly 1 in 1000 people per year. It is more common in women than in men, and in younger people (less than 50 years of age) than in the elderly. It is often associated with constipation, diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, and obesity. While common, anal fissures are easy to treat with lifestyle changes and compounded medications.
Ketotifen is a drug used worldwide for the treatment of allergic conditions, most commonly asthma. While the oral tablet form is commercially available in other countries, it is only available in the United States through compounding pharmacies.
Although your cat may seem to have little reason for stress or high blood pressure, feline hypertension is a serious yet common health threat to house cats. High blood pressure in cats can sometimes occur without any discernible cause; however, it is more typically a symptom of another disease. Hypertension can commonly occur in both kidney disease and hyperthyroidism. Obesity and genetic components can also contribute to the likelihood of a cat developing high blood pressure. No matter the cause, high blood pressure can cause significant harm to a cat if not treated promptly.
You might think that the brown spots on your skin are only freckles from sun exposure or normal age spots from the natural aging process, but some of these dark discolorations are serious health problems. Today, many senior citizens are finding strange dark spots on their skin because there wasn't a concern about sunlight exposure long ago. It is important to understand what the dark spots on your skin are along with preventing additional discolorations from the exposure to sunlight.
From time to time, it is common for your interest in sex to not synchronize with your partner’s. It is also normal for your general interest in sex to occasionally fluctuate. However, for some, a decreased libido over a long period of time may be cause for concern. It turns out that hormones, a decrease or increase in them to be more specific, may contribute to a decrease in libido for both women and men.
Obviously, not everyone is a doctor or in the medical field. It stands to reason that not everyone understands hormones and their role in the body. Hormones are much like traffic cops in the body. They direct the hormones to the major systems that each runs. Hormones also control other things such as when we are hot or cold, if we're hungry, and when to sweat.
Crohn’s Disease is a debilitating form of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is estimated that 3 million people in the US alone have a form of IBD. There is currently no cure for Crohn’s which is usually characterized by frequent diarrhea, abdominal pain, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, and anemia. Normal therapies include immunosuppressive drugs including steroids, but 80% of patients will need surgical intervention within 20 years of diagnosis. There is evidence that low dose naltrexone can achieve symptom relief in some patients who have moderate symptoms despite normal therapies.
When you hear the word naltrexone your first instinct is most likely to think of this medication as something that is used to treat opioid or alcohol dependence. However, what if I were to tell you that patients suffering with fibromyalgia could use this medication to find relief and treat their pain? As strange as this may sound, breakthroughs in research in the recent years have actually shown that low dose naltrexone may potentially have a multitude of uses, including treating autoimmune diseases, pain and central nervous system disorders. This article will explore why low dose naltrexone may be not be such a far-fetched idea for treating fibromyalgia.
Biotin goes by several other names: vitamin H, vitamin B7, and coenzyme R. Biotin is an essential molecule to biological processes which cannot be produced in the body. Like all vitamins, it must be ingested in the diet. Currently, high dose biotin at a dose of 300 mg every day is being clinically investigated for the improvement of symptoms in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). This dose is 10,000 times higher than the adequate daily intake recommendations.
Ketamine is a drug currently approved by the FDA for use as a general anesthetic during minor surgical procedures such as biopsies. It is widely known as a recreational drug because of its ability to induce cognitive-dissociative, hallucinogenic, and euphoric states in humans. Recently, it has been implicated in research as a potential therapeutic agent in depression especially in patients who have failed previous standard therapies.
Overview: Patients with extensive vitiligo may choose to depigment the remaining areas of their skin to attain uniform skin tone. Monobenzone or monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone (MBEH) is a drug approved by the FDA for final depigmentation of the skin in patients with advanced vitiligo (vitiligo universalis). It is prepared as a 20-40% topical formulation such as a cream or ointment and is applied twice a day to affected areas. Monobenzone has been shown to start irreversibly depigmenting skin in 1-4 months, and full effects are usually seen after 5-12 months. Beside are pictures showing the progression of a patient’s depigmentation before, and at 4, 6, and 8 months of monobenzone treatment.
The mystery behind what it is and is there a place for vaginal Valium® (diazepam) in the treatment of it? Odds are that many individuals probably have never even heard of pelvic floor dysfunction, more so many of those suffering from this condition may be unaware/have never been properly diagnosed. In this article we break down the mystery behind this condition and what you need to know about it.
Cats are wonderful pets. They can be cuddly, playful, loving, and silly. However, applying medication to your cat is not always easy because they can become squirmy and uncooperative. Thankfully, there is a new product on the market called the Topi-CLICK Micro that makes applying transdermal medication to your cat much easier. This post will discuss benefits of using the Topi-CLICK Micro and how to use it safely and correctly to apply your cat's medication.
Sublingual Administration is a way of giving medication through the mouth. It involves placing the drug beneath the tongue, to be absorbed and dissolved into the bloodstream through the mucous membranes. These drugs are in the form of tablets that dissolve, sprays, or films.
As we age, taking care of our hearts should become more of a priority. This is especially the case if you have a history of heart disease and high blood pressure in your family. Fortunately, there are some foods you can include in your diet to improve the health of your heart and support overall well-being.
The Spring is an important season, as the drastic change in weather can impact people's immune systems and cause them to catch colds. That's why it is important that you are eating fruits and vegetables on a daily basis so that you can stay healthy. Here is a look at the best fruits and vegetables to eat as the temperatures transition during the Spring.
As most parents know, kids are picky and won't always eat or drink everything you give them. Not only does this make dinnertime difficult, but it can cause problems when administering medicine. If your child doesn't like the taste or consistency, he or she may refrain from taking it. So, what steps can you take to encourage your child to take his or her medicine?
Compounding is the art and science of making personalized medications for patients by specially trained pharmacists. Compounded medications are made based on a practitioner's prescription in which individual ingredients are mixed together in the exact strength and dosage form required for the patient.
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Before the mass production of pharmaceuticals gained momentum and changed the industry, most medications were created for patients in a more individualized manner. While mass production brought convenience to the supply side of things, it took away some of the benefit that came with tailoring prescription medications to the individual patient’s needs. In the accompanying infographic, we’ve laid out a timeline that touches on the history of compounding medicine, along with statistics and data related to prescriptions across the United States. Not only that, but we’ve also provided a number of benefits associated with compounding medicine that you’ll want to keep in mind next time you need a more tailored prescription.
It's important to choose a compounding pharmacy located in the US and specifically who's licensed in your state. You also want to carefully select a compound pharmacy that is accredited for adhering to the highest quality standards and compounding practices. An accreditation, like PCAB, Pharmacy Compounding Accreditation Board provides a process to review a compounding pharmacy’s ability to meet strict regulatory requirements and standards set by accreditation organization. It demonstrates the pharmacy’s commitment to quality by meeting/or exceeding strict industry standards.
One of the many responsibilities of raising pets is making sure they are fed, bathed, and loved. Our furry friends also need to be taken to the veterinarian on a regular basis to make sure they are happy and healthy. However, sometimes animals undergo health symptoms when doctors are not around and the responsibility of primary care falls onto the shoulders of the owner. If ever found in a situation like this, it may be recommended that you use compounded drugs for your animals in order to ensure a less stressful and easier method to administering medication to your pets.
Some people are unable to take certain types of medications. For such individuals, the concept of compounded drugs might offer a viable solution. The following brief piece examines what compounded drugs are, the reasons they may be necessary, in addition to how they benefit those who take them.
Patients and their caregivers experience confusion over what their insurance covers. This is particularly true when they are prescribed a compounded medication. The reality is that it depends on the insurance company. Some cover compounded prescriptions. Some cover compounded medicines under certain circumstances while others do not cover compounded drugs.
Compounding is a pharmaceutical practice that can tailor a medication to the specific needs of an individual. These needs have been identified by the individual's health care provider and are in some way incongruent with the options available through traditional drug manufacturing. Let's look at what compounding involves and how you can ensure you're getting safe, reliable compounding services.
Lupus is a chronic autoimmune condition that can affect many parts of the body including the skin, kidneys, central nervous system and blood vessels. The body’s immune system cannot distinguish between foreign bacteria or viruses, such as the flu, from the body’s own healthy tissues. This condition causes inflammation, and damage to various organs of the body. With treatment, symptoms of lupus can be controlled and patients can live a healthier life.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition in which the body’s immune system attacks the myelin (protective sheath over nerve fibers) in the central nervous system(CNS). Over time there is degeneration of the nerves that can lead to a series of issues. Less severe symptoms can include numbness, weakness, tingling, pain and tremor. While there is no cure for MS, there are treatment options that can help slow down degeneration and relieve symptoms. Among those treatment options, the use of high-dose biotin-D has recently emerged.
Finasteride is more commonly known for its tablet form to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), brand name Proscar and male pattern hair loss (alopecia), brand name Propecia. It was originally marketed for BPH at 5mg daily, one of the side effects noticed with this medication was the increasing hair thickness and was then approved after being studied for alopecia. Although given at a lower dose of 1mg daily for alopecia, finasteride, when taken orally, can still cause side effects common with 5mg daily such as decreased libido, erectile dysfunction and other sexual adverse experiences. These side effects may steer patients away from wanting to take oral finasteride for alopecia.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is associated with disabling symptoms because the immune system attacks the nervous system. Signs and symptoms vary from person to person. Mild symptoms can include numbness or weakness, tingling or pain and fatigue while more severe MS can result in patients losing their ability to walk independently. With no cure for MS, symptomatic relief is offered through a variety of medications.
If you were wide awake in health class—or, happened on it while flipping through a Men’s Fitness magazine in between articles on ab crunches—testosterone is a naturally occurring hormone produced by the human body that helps signal organ development and bone growth and the creation of new blood cells in males and females.
If you subscribe to the New York Times, you may have seen the special section they had in early June about the latest information as to the mutually beneficial relationship between people and their pets. Our understanding of this bond has deepened: we can get employer-sponsored health benefits for veterinary care; cats—and even goats!—participate in yoga classes; there are growing studies in empathetic responses between dogs and people; there are even reports that interaction with our pets can help boost our immune responses!
It’s time to retire that catchphrase, “Science Fiction has become Science FACT,” because we’re now living in an age where parents struggle to figure out Skype settings to talk to their children, and our phones computational abilities if properly applied could send an Apollo-level mission to the moon and back.
With access to information at our fingertips, there is also easy access to prescription medication. With one click—plus free shipping—acquiring prescription medications has become easier than getting them at traditional brick-and-mortar pharmacies. And in some cases, it’s more affordable.
Liver Disease Ursodiol as one therapeutic option The liver is a multifaceted organ. It is involved in digestion by the metabolism of protein, lipids and carbohydrates; storage of vitamins, minerals and production of bile acid, which is essential for detoxification of many end-products of digestion. It also produces and stores coagulation factors recruited for production of clots resulting in wound healing. This organ protects itself by regenerating his own cells to a certain extend, but can still be at great risk due to its filtering capacity and exposure to many metabolites, products of digestion, drugs, and toxins. This could be leaving temporary or even permanent damage to the cells it harbors.
Cushing’s Disease and Compounded Trilostane Dogs can suffer from endocrine (hormonal) diseases much like people. Cushing’s disease (hyperadrenocorticism or HAC) is an endocrine disorder, in which dogs produce too much cortisol hormone. 80% of dogs with Cushing’s disease have the pituitary-dependent form, while the remaining are affected by an adrenal gland tumor. Cushing’s disease affects the multiple functions throughout the dog’s entire body.
CareFirst Pharmacy is proud to bring custom-compounded theophylline in flavored, 4-way FlexDose tablets. If your veterinarian has prescribed theophylline for your pet, we are happy to provide an easy way to get just the right dose. What is Theophylline? Theophylline is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor drug and bronchodilator. It is mainly used in dogs and cats with respiratory diseases. It directly relaxes muscles within the bronchi of the lungs and also in the pulmonary blood vessels. Theophylline can cause stimulation of the respiratory centers in the brain and has a mild diuretic effect, which may make it a helpful drug in managing congestive heart failure (CHF) in certain pets.
Heart medication specifically for dogs may seem unusual, but it is far from uncommon. If your dog suffers from a heart condition, your veterinarian may have prescribed pimobendan. What is pimobendan? Pimobendan is a PDE3 (phosphodiesterase III) inhibitor, which increases cardiac contractility while dilating arterioles. In the simplest terms, it helps to relax blood vessels, thus lowering blood pressure and helping the heart to pump blood properly. How can pimobendan help my dog? Pimobendan is a medication that is prescribed for a very specific heart problem: congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Pimobendan is not currently recommended for dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or hypertropic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Overall, dogs that take pimobendan tend to have a longer survival time and feel better than dogs with the same condition that do not take pimobendan.
Your Pets are Special and Their Medication Should Be Too Your pet is unique in every way. Most of the time, that uniqueness is in their personality and playfulness – but it can also mean their medical needs. Compounding pharmacies are keenly aware of how medicines can affect animals, and want tohelp meet the healing necessities of your pet with a treatment as unique as they are. Compounding itself has a storied history, and is a trustworthy and safe way to treat pets. Since dogs, cats, and other pets have been gracing us with their love and faithfulness, vets have been using simple, customized compounds to keep pets and pet owners happy.
Next in our blog’s behavior series is a drug called fluoxetine. Most people know of this drug by its trade name “Prozac.® Specialty Care Pharmacy is happy to offer this drug as a generic in the compounded medium you need. Fluoxetine is a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) and it works in cats in a similar fashion to humans. While it is an “anti-depressant” in people, it is used to treat a variety of behavioral issues in cats.
Use of Diethylstilbestrol (DES) for therapeutic purposes Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as the involuntary loss of urine during the filling phase of the bladder . At this time, there are many suspected factors contributing to the problem. Nevertheless, urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) after spaying is the most common micturition disorder, and its medical treatment is normally successful. The underlying mechanism is not fully understood. But, we do know that hormonal changes can induce structural and functional alterations in the bladder, as well as in the urethra composition. The proposed predispositions to incontinence that follows neutering including gender, breed, body weight, obesity, tail docking, spaying technique (ovariectomy and ovariohysterectomy) and morphology or position of neck of the bladder and urethral length, have all been investigated
Deborah Barber Shores, DVM Pharmaceuticals are used to treat and prevent a wide range of ailments in our animal companions. Sometimes, veterinarians are not able to dispense medications in the dosage required for a particular patient. This is where compounding pharmacies step in and save the day. Dogs, cats, horses and even rabbits can benefit from compounded medications. As a veterinarian, I use a compounding pharmacy almost every day. Let’s take a look at a few cases where compounded drugs have made a difference for my patients.
Cats are wonderful addition to our families but sometimes there are ‘unpleasant’ aspects of having a cat. Many of you know what I am speaking of, and it usually involves stepping in ‘something’ with bare feet in the middle of the night. Hairballs and other contents of vomit are an unfortunate part of many cat fancier’s lives. But did you know that hairballs are NOT a “normal” thing for cats to produce? Hairballs, when produced frequently (more than once a month) can be a sign that there is a problem in the digestive system. If your cat has had issues with vomiting, regurgitation or hairballs, your veterinarian may have prescribed Cisapride.
In this article, we will look at amitriptyline, a medication your veterinarian may have prescribed for your cat. Specialty Care Pharmacy has many dosing options available for your cat’s specific needs. What is Amitriptyline? Amitriptyline is a tricyclic behavior modifier and was used for many years in people as an “anti-depressant.” Surprisingly, it is used to treat a variety of problems in cats. It also has anti-inflammatory properties, which can help decrease discomfort and pain associated with certain medical conditions.
Enrofloxacin is a synthetic antimicrobial prescribed in disease states involving susceptible bacteria like Staphylococcus, Proteus, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (4) The drug acts by inhibiting DNA and RNA synthesis within the pathogen. In most of our patients, it is metabolized to ciprofloxacin, which may contribute to additional antibacterial effects. In reptiles, it is mostly used in upper respiratory infections, wounds, abscesses and critically ill individuals. For example, this python (see figure 1) has facial lesions from self-induced trauma after some components of the enclosure materials were changed from plastic to wood. The patient also presented with upper respiratory congestion, which was noticed during the physical examination as a harsh upper nasal noise.
Hyperthyroidism is a condition when the amount of thyroid hormone exceeds the normal limit in the blood circulation. The usual cause of this condition is the enlargement of the thyroid gland(s) or a hormone producing thyroid tumor. In feline, this condition is rare and in approximately 80% of the cats, it is observed that hyperthyroidism involves enlargement of both glands. However, in the other 15% only one is enlarged. Hyperthyroidism causes intense activity in the cats causing them to move around with increased speed and playing a vital role in decrement of their health.